Welcome to Palaeolexicon!

Palaeolexicon is a tool for the study of ancient languages. Its name derives from the Greek words palaeo meaning 'old' and lexicon meaning 'dictionary'. If you're interested in the ancient world and its languages, then this is a site for you. It is a place for people who love historical linguistics and ancient history.

2018-07-01 - The Lycian dictionary is now available
There's a new public Lycian dictionary available under the languages section. Lycian was one of the languages attested in Turkey during the first millenium BCE. With this addition we hit a milestone, covering all major known Anatolian Indo-European languages! 
2017-11-11 - New article: Anatolian cereals
We've got a new article called "Anatolian cereals: A survey on Anatolian early farming" by G. Tardivo. Consider this as an addenda to "Prometheus or Amirani part 2" focused on farming vocabulary. The introduction of a new lifestyle, brings along the vocabulary used, which in this case is cereals, bread and cakes.
2017-07-08 - The Palaic dictionary is now available!
We've compiled the Palaic word list and published it in under the public dictionaries. Palaic was one of the Indo-European languages that branched of from Proto-Anatolian. A small number of words survive, among which there is a considerable amount of Hattian loanwords.
2017-05-26 - Pre-Greek studies volume 2 is here!
Do you remember our first volume of Pre-Greek studies by G.Tardivo called "Prometheus or Amirani"? We've just publiced part 2 which is "An updated study on the Pre-Greek substrate and its origins". You will find it under our articles in both HTML and PDF format.
2017-01-22 - Ehe śoṣi! Hello world! The Tocharian A dictionary is now public!
Tocharian A dictionary
We have just added a Tocharian A dictionary in the languages section. It is fully browsable and material additions/updates are ongoing!
2016-12-13 - Major update in the Proto-Indo-European dictionary
Proto-Indo-European roots and their outcome in various languages
We've made a major update to the Proto-Indo-European dictionary. More than 250 roots have been updated/revised, while ~ 2100 new roots have been introduced. There might be few duplicates, but we're going to merge them soon.
2016-12-03 - The Urartian dictionary is available!
As promised, a browsable Urartian dictionary is now available in the public dictionaries section. We have collected a huge number of sources making this dictionary the most complete you will find online. We still have work to do regarding the commentary, the Hurrian equivalents, the loans from and to Armenian, personal names, toponyms and the affixes.
2016-11-08 - Palaeolexicon version 3 is here!
We have a new website which will improve your overall experience, especially on small devices! Be sure to check the following new features:

  • Optimized for better mobile and tablet experience.
  • Improved search engine looking for relevant terms e.g. wife > married woman.
  • Reversed meaning - word index.
  • Heurestics AI helping you to spot fast related words across languages. Read more about it here.
  • A table of (macro-) Altaic phonology was added.
  • New languages layout allowing you to switch from grid and tree view.
  • Updates on some of the language articles. 
  • The result grids can now be controlled with the keyboard (Arrow buttons and ENTER).
Last but not least we have posted a new article called: Pre-Pre-Greek: Traces of a hunter gatherer substrate in Greek.
2015-10-01 - Let the Hittites and the Luwians speak!

We're so excited to announce that the Hittite and Luwian dictionaries are now available for browsing! For starters we provide you the basic vocabulary (with cuneiform representations), but as time passes the dictionaries will be enriched with more words. You will find the dictionaries in the "Languages" page, under Indo-European/Anatolian. 
2015-07-31 - Summer update
There are some nice updates and news available this for you week:

  1. There's a new article about the biblical Goliath and the etymology of his name. Was he a Carian?
  2. We've got a new, very useful tool available that will help you with the basic sound correspondences between major Indo-European groups.
  3. We're working on some new dictionaries, specifically cuneiform Luwian, Hittite and Ancient Macedonian. 
Follow us
Instagram Social media have not been our strongest point, but you can now follow us on Instagram. Every week we're posting some wonderful images related to archaeology and linguistics. Sites, inscriptions, statues, peculiar artifacts and many more.
Did you know these words?
Safaitic: ʿwd "again"
Old Persian: ba-r- "to bear, to lift"
Urartian: ururda- "blacksmith"
Proto-Celtic: *ster "star"
Cypriot Syllabic Script: te-ka-ti "ten"