Word study tool for ancient languages
Welcome to Palaeolexicon!
Welcome to Palaeolexicon
The word study tool for ancient languages
Discover a world of ancient writing systems

and languages such as...
Greek

Ἑλληνικὴ
Anatolian languages
e.g. Carian, Lydian
Phrygian
and many more...
Start exploring the ancient world now!

    Palaeolexicon is a tool for the study of ancient languages. Its name derives from the Greek words palaeo meaning 'old' and lexicon meaning 'dictionary'.
    If you're interested of the ancient world and its languages, then this is a site for you. It is a place for people who love historical linguistics and ancient history.

    Want to know more? Please have a look on our about page.


    Random picks - Did you know these words?
    Arcado-Cypriot Greek: Γόρτυνα “place name”
    Carian: bal “personal name”
    Doric Greek: δάλασσα “sea”
    Old Persian: ku-u-ru-u-ša “Cyrus, personal name”
    Ionic Greek: άτταγος “he-goat, male leader of a goat group”
    2014-07-16 - The black sea deluge, the Samothracian language and a new ancient Macedonian inscription
    There are new articles available on the articles section:
    1. The great deluge - a pre-Abrahamic version of the flood as told by the people of Samothrace
    2. One more ancient Macedonian inscription?

    2014-06-28 - The index of pre-Greek toponyms has been released
    We're happy to announce the release of the index of pre-Greek toponyms. You will find it in the languages page, under the tab "other dictionaries". The commenting is still laconic, but we will add more information on the way. As always, work is always being done in the background. 
    2014-06-20 - Proto-Albanian word list released
    We are glad to announce the first part of the Proto-Albanian word-list. This is just a small body of words, but more are going to be added gradually. It is well documented and has lexical comparisons. You will find the dictionary under the Palaeo-Balkan languages in the language tree.

    Also, don't miss our latest article: Zurna, davul and other ancient Anatolian instruments
    2014-03-16 - The Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Turkic dictionaries are now browsable
    As you might have noticed, the Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Turkic dictionaries have been searchable for some time. They are now also available for browsing, letter by letter.
    2014-03-07 - New language article available: The Hattians and the Hattic language
    It has been almost 1 1/2 year since we released the Hattic dictionary, but unfortunately there has been no language presentation. Although there're more things to add, this is probably the richest article on the Hattic language you will find online.

    Enjoy!

    Url: http://www.palaeolexicon.com/Hattic 
    2014-03-01 - Pre-Greek studies volume I
    Today, we kick off with a series of articles called "Pre-Greek studies", focusing on the language pre-history of the Helladic region. We've got a great contribution by Giampaolo Tardivo, regarding the Pre-Greek language and its relation to its neighbouring non-Indo-European languages in Anatolia and Caucasus.


    Read the article here: Promitheus or Amirani
    or download the PDF: G.P. Tardivo - Promitheus or Amirani
    2014-01-15 - Status on some dictionaries
    It feels like it is time for a status report on some of the languages. Here they come:

    - Hattic:
    • Presentation is being prepared
    • Cuneiform rendering support planning
    - Hurrian:
    • Ongoing word verification
    Homeric Greek:
    • Final word verification
    - Urartian:
    • Ongoing dictionary enrichment
    - Old Persian:
    • Baby steps are being taken
    - Old Norse:
    • Dictionary preparation
    • Rune support preparation
    - Proto-Indo-European:
    • Soon to be released / ongoing review.
    - Proto-Turkic:
    • Soon to be released / ongoing review.
    2014-01-06 - Happy new year! Palaeolexicon version 2 is here!
    The 'red button' was pressed in Hatay, Turkey on the 6th of January 2014. It was about time, even though there was a week's delay. Version 2 of Palaeolexicon is here! Reminiscent of the old version, but improved in every sense. Those who have followed the blog, are probably aware of the new features. The rest can review our previous posts, although it doesn't take time to discover the new features.

    Enjoy!
    //Admin
    2013-12-08 - A tool for cognate research
    We're almost there!
    It is a matter of weeks before we say goodbye to the old site and introduce the new one. Just few details left... One of the biggest challenges has been the "Tools" section. As mentioned earlier this year on another post, one of Palaeolexicon's many roles is to provide you with tools that will help your research. One of the most painstaking things in historical linguistics, is the identification of cognates across languages. You know how it is... Open every single dictionary, lookup for words that sound/look relatively similar, have a relatively close semantic context and satisfy all kind of phonological rules. Now look at this screenshot below.


    This is the "Cognate research tool". It will use various algorithms to identify possible cognates across many languages. It will save you lots of time, since it will do most of the job (including a semantic analysis). Once those cognate candidates are presented, it is up to you to evaluate the results. If something looks interesting enough, you can request further analysis on that candidate to find more distant relationships.

    However, you should be cautious. Those algorithms have not been thoroughly tested and cannot guarantee safe results. The last decision is always yours. By time the algorithms will be improving and the data available for analysis will increase. There is this idea of creating plugins that will test the results against the phonogical rules that apply for every language. That should increase the accuracy significantly, however this feature belongs to a future project. 
    2013-11-02 - Palaeolexicon 2.0: A preview
    In less than 60 days, this year is over and a promise has to be fulfilled. Palaeolexicon version 2.0 will be released and it is time for some teasers. We won't reveal all points, but 5 will be hopefully enough.


    So, what is new?
    1. The introduction of IPA (international phonetic alphabet) that will help users to read words correctly. Where possible of course, since not even the pronunciation of Ancient Greek is certain.
    2. The introduction of synonyms: Palaeolexicon is aware of the word meanings and can therefore list words that are considered synonyms.
    3. Words of interest: Words of similar meaning, of the same context or group are listed as "Words that might be of interest". That means that if you're looking for the word "king" in a language, you might be interested of the words for commander, lord, leader etc.
    4. Full rendering of symbols: Forget those special fonts you need to read Lydian, Carian etc. You won't need them anymore! Symbols, hieroglyphics and cuneiform will be visible in your screen together with their IPA readings.

    5. Partial dictionaries:  There are many dictionaries that are being prepared in the background but are not visible (Proto-Indo-European, Lycian, Hittite, Sanskrit, Armenian, Ancient Macedonian, Hurrian, Sumerian etc). So far you can only see their traces in words that appear as "related" or "see also". In version 2, many of them will be available for searching, but not browsing.


    Of course there is a whole bunch of other new features and improvements. The main question is if you're going to get them as an xmas or new years gift...