Welcome to Palaeolexicon!

Palaeolexicon is a tool for the study of ancient languages. Its name derives from the Greek words palaeo meaning 'old' and lexicon meaning 'dictionary'. If you're interested of the ancient world and its languages, then this is a site for you. It is a place for people who love historical linguistics and ancient history.

2017-01-22 - Ehe śoṣi! Hello world! The Tocharian A dictionary is now public!
Tocharian A dictionary
We have just added a Tocharian A dictionary in the languages section. It is fully browsable and material additions/updates are ongoing!
2016-12-13 - Major update in the Proto-Indo-European dictionary
Proto-Indo-European roots and their outcome in various languages
We've made a major update to the Proto-Indo-European dictionary. More than 250 roots have been updated/revised, while ~ 2100 new roots have been introduced. There might be few duplicates, but we're going to merge them soon.
2016-12-03 - The Urartian dictionary is available!
As promised, a browsable Uratian dictionary is now available in the public dictionaries section. We have collected a huge number of sources making this dictionary the most complete you will find online. We still have work to do regarding the commentary, the Hurrian equivalents, the loans from and to Armenian, personal names, toponyms and the affixes.
2016-11-08 - Palaeolexicon version 3 is here!
We have a new website which will improve your overall experience, especially on small devices! Be sure to check the following new features:

  • Optimized for better mobile and tablet experience.
  • Improved search engine looking for relevant terms e.g. wife > married woman.
  • Reversed meaning - word index.
  • Heurestics AI helping you to spot fast related words across languages. Read more about it here.
  • A table of (macro-) Altaic phonology was added.
  • New languages layout allowing you to switch from grid and tree view.
  • Updates on some of the language articles. 
  • The result grids can now be controlled with the keyboard (Arrow buttons and ENTER).
Last but not least we have posted a new article called: Pre-Pre-Greek: Traces of a hunter gatherer substrate in Greek.
2015-10-01 - Let the Hittites and the Luwians speak!

We're so excited to announce that the Hittite and Luwian dictionaries are now available for browsing! For starters we provide you the basic vocabulary (with cuneiform representations), but as time passes the dictionaries will be enriched with more words. You will find the dictionaries in the "Languages" page, under Indo-European/Anatolian. 
2015-07-31 - Summer update
There are some nice updates and news available this for you week:

  1. There's a new article about the biblical Goliath and the etymology of his name. Was he a Carian?
  2. We've got a new, very useful tool available that will help you with the basic sound correspondences between major Indo-European groups.
  3. We're working on some new dictionaries, specifically cuneiform Luwian, Hittite and Ancient Macedonian. 
2015-04-18 - Safaitic is the first Semitic language to enter the list of public dictionaries!
The first Semitic language to have a public dictionary is Safaitic, an ancient north Arabic dialect. There was not even a font for it, so we had to create one from scratch. It's not a beauty, but we will improve it by time. When it is good enough, we will release it for free.

As for the dictionary, it is by no means complete. It is more or less the basic vocabulary.
2014-12-28 - Tocharian B dictionary, a gift for 2015
The Tocharian B word list is now  available under the languages section! 
2014-11-11 - The Vikings are here!
It took some time, but it is finaly here! A browsable old Norse dictionary including the runes is available under the languages section. On top of that you get a proto-Kartvelian word list as a bonus. Meanwhile a massive update with a browsable Tocharian B dictionary is on the way.
2014-08-21 - The Eteocypriot dictionary!
A new dictionary is available under the Aegean-Anatolian branch of the language tree called Eteocypriot. Eteocypriot is an unknown language (or languages) that appears in various Cypriot documents. Even though it is possible to read it, the language(s) is not understood and therefore the "dictionary" (it is more of a word index actually) has no meanings attached to its words. Basic commentary regarding the inscriptions is available, but work is still in progress.
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Instagram Social media have not been our strongest point, but you can now follow us on Instagram. Every week we're posting some wonderful images related to archaeology and linguistics. Sites, inscriptions, statues, peculiar artifacts and many more.
Did you know these words?
Pre-Celtic: *kani "good, nice"
Proto-Uralic: nimi "name"
Proto-Semitic: baḥr "sea, lake"
Aeolic Greek: Μακετούν "ethnonym, Macedonian"
Proto-Turkic: *eren "man, mankind"